Unvaccinated Italians face tough bans
Italy is making life more uncomfortable for unvaccinated people as the Christmas holidays draw near.
The new rules mean they are excluded from indoor restaurants, theatres and museums in a bid to reduce the spread of coronavirus and encourage vaccine sceptics to get their shots.
Starting on Monday and running through to January 15, Italian police can check whether diners in restaurants or bars have a "super" green health pass certifying that they are either vaccinated or have recently recovered from the virus.
Smartphone applications that check people's health pass status will be updated and those who have merely tested negative in recent days for Covid-19 will no longer be allowed into concerts, movies or performances.
The number of new Covid-19 infections in Italy has been on a gradual rise for the past six weeks, even before concerns arose about the new Omicron variant.
That is a worrying trend as Italians plan holiday parties and getaways to spend time with friends and family. Christmas travel and holiday gatherings were strictly limited last year due to a steeper rise in Covid cases.
While both Germany and Austria are moving towards making vaccines obligatory, Italy is instead tightening restrictions on the unvaccinated, while allowing those who are vaccinated go about life more or less as usual.
Italy's vaccination rate is higher than many of its neighbours, at 85 per cent of the eligible population aged 12 and older and 77 per cent of the total population.
But people in their 30s, 40s and 50s have proved the most reluctant to get vaccinated, with nearly 3.5 million still not having received their first dose.
They are also the same age group that is now being hardest hit by the virus, according to Silvio Brusaferro, head of Italy's National Health Institute.
Also starting on Monday, people must have a health pass to access local public transportation and stay in hotels - that can be acquired also with a negative recent test.
With the Christmas shopping season heating up, many cities including Rome and Milan have ordered mask mandates even outdoors.
Public health officials say vaccinations, along with prudent public behaviour including wearing masks in crowds, are key to reducing infection levels as winter weather pushes more activities indoors.
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